Most people are aware that their car is fitted with ABS, but few know what it does or how it works. Sensors fitted to a car's wheels determine if one is on the verge of locking up under braking. If a wheel does lock, then hydraulic valves release to reduce braking pressure ever so slightly to prevent this happening. In many ways the electronics are performing cadence braking - where the driver pumps the brake pedal to prevent wheel lock. This allows the driver to maintain steering control, which is lost when the wheels are locked.
The new X2 will be priced from £33,980 in xDrive20d SE form. At that price, the X2 sits conveniently in-between the X1 and X3, which start from £28,460 and £38,880 respectively. It will also be substantially more expensive than both the Range Rover Evoque and Jaguar E-Pace.
That’s why we asked owners of 14,208 cars to tell us if their cars had suffered any faults in the past 12 months. Faults were classified into 14 groups: battery, bodywork, brakes, engine, engine electrics, exhaust, exterior lights, fuel system, gearbox/clutch, interior trim, non-engine electrics, steering, suspension and other.
Miller, raised on a Nebraska farm and educated at UCLA and later Harvard University, was the last surviving member of the so-called Whiz Kids, a group of ten young men who famously persuaded Henry Ford II to hire them in the late 1940s from the Ivy League school, where they mastered statistical analysis for the U.S. military during World War II.
Burns said that with the potential for high-volume production (and long-term support), lining up Tier 1 suppliers for the USPS project hasn’t been an issue. So it was a natural next step to develop a commercial-van version at the same time. Panasonic (Tesla) Batteries, BMW Range Extender The N-Gen and Workhorse’s W-15 pickup will share quite a lot, including their composite body construction. Burns told Car and Driver that they’ll use the same batteries: Panasonic 18650-format cells, a “commodity” format that is roughly AA size and essentially the same as is used in the Tesla Model S and Model X, among other vehicles. But what’s different is the range extender. While the production version of the W-15 will use a 1.5-liter three-cylinder BMW range extender, the N-Gen is going to use the 647-cc two-cylinder Kymco-built engine from the BMW i3, Burns said. That’s because, while the van would only be aimed at commercial use, with well-defined driving loops and the range extender strictly as an emergency crutch, the pickup is being designed with a wider operating range—including sustaining its peak power after the battery is depleted.
Honda’s order sheet for the Sport leaves no room for options. Drivers who want more equipment have no choice but to opt for a higher trim, so that’s where the decisions end. Simplicity is bliss.
With BMW, Mercedes and Porsche all producing four-wheel-drive, turbocharged (and, in the Panamera's case, electrically assisted) super-saloons, the XJR 575 represents the end of a wonderful and wild era. ‘Responsible performance’ is now the order of the day – a memo that Jaguar must have missed, because, instead of taking this opportunity to dial out some of the XJR’s wilder characteristics, it's simply accentuated them. Like handing Liam Gallagher another pint mid-gig, everything about the XJR has been turned up to 11.
"I probably had the most influence on the international side," Miller told Automotive News in 2003. "In the early days of Ford, the overseas [administration] was separate from the U.S. It was run out of New York. It was duplication and very costly. I ... thought that we ought to get rid of the overseas staff and do everything through a single staff in Dearborn. That was really a big decision, but Henry Ford backed me up and we did that."
"I found out the mayor of Detroit had a tougher problem than I had as president of Ford," Miller said in a 1998 interview. "He was short of money, short of time and short of qualified people. We really didn't know how to help him."
As standard, every X2 will come with BMW's iDrive infotainment and navigation system presented on a 6.5in screen (although that can grow to an 8.8in touchscreen if drivers select an upgraded set-up). The system is similar to that in the new 5 Series this year and can be had in conjunction with an optional head-up display, which projects speed and navigation instructions directly into the driver's field of vision.